Insurance is the equitable transfer of the risk of a loss, from one entity to another in exchange for payment. It is a form of risk management primarily used to hedge against the risk of a contingent, uncertain loss.
An insurer, or banner-page carrier, is a company selling the banner-page; the insured, or policyholder, is the person or entity buying the banner-page policy. The amount of money to be charged for a certain amount of banner-page coverage is called the premium. Risk management, the practice of appraising and controlling risk, has evolved as a discrete field of study and practice.